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Global Changeling Book

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  • Global Changeling Book

    In the Legendary/Epic Changeling thread, it has been argued that such a book should focus on the least well known folk tales from around the world. Truthfully, I would like to see such myths explored in a global changeling book. That is, a book that looks at changeling society from around the world with chapters broken up into different regions; Asia(not just Japan, Korea, and China, but also Vietnam, the Philippines, Thailand, Laos and India), Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. I would like the book to explore not just the courts specific to the different regions, but also kiths and hobgoblins unique to different countries. I would also like a description of the Hedge in the different parts of the world.

  • #2
    I think every single gameline could use a big book of example settings across the globe. They're the strongest part of the 2e corebooks in my eyes, and really help to flesh things out.

    Call me Regina or Lex.

    Female pronouns for me, please.


    • #3
      Having been born in Japan, I have a hue fascination with Japanese culture and history. As such, I would like a global Changeling book to give a good deal of description of the Hedge, True Fae, and Kiths specific to Japan. I have already introduced these Japanese Yokai in my Fae entities thread, but will introduce them here again for people who have not seen it and could use them for inspiration.
      Nurarihyon (滑瓢 or ぬらりひょん, Nurarihyon), or Nūrihyon (ぬうりひょん, Nūrihyon), is a Japanese yōkai said to originate from Wakayama Prefecture. It is also sometimes believed to be descended from the Umibōzu.

      Nurarihyon is a mysterious and powerful yokai encountered all across Japan. Appearances can be deceiving, and nurarihyon is the perfect illustration of that saying. Overall, he is rather benign-looking, his head elongated and gourd-shaped. His face is wizened and wrinkled, resembling a cross between and old man and a catfish. He wears elegant clothing – often a splendid silk kimono or the rich robes of a Buddhist abbot – and carries himself in the quiet manner of a sophisticated gentleman.

      The short, comical, elderly nurarihyon is actually the most powerful and elite of all the yokai in the world. He travels in an ornate palanquin carried by human or yokai servants, often visiting red light districts, but occasionally stopping at mountain villas as well. He is known as “the Supreme Commander of All Monsters,” and every yokai listens to his words and pays him respect, treating him as the elder and leader in all yokai meetings. Along with otoroshi and nozuchi, nurarihyon leads the procession known as "Hyakki Yakō" (the night parade of one hundred demons) through the streets of Japan on dark, rainy nights. He fits the role of supreme commander every bit as much when he interacts with humans as well.

      Nurarihyon shows up on evenings when a household is extremely busy. He arrives at homes unexpectedly in his splendid palanquin and slips into the house, unnoticed by anyone. He helps himself to the familys tea, tobacco, and other luxuries, acting in all respects as if he were the master of the house. His power is so great that even the real owners of the house, when they finally notice his presence, can do nothing to stop him. In fact, while he is there, the owners actually believe the nurarihyon to actually be the rightful master of the house. Eventually he leaves just as he came, quietly and politely slipping out of the house and into his palanquin, as the owners of the house obsequiously bow and wave him farewell. Only after he has left does anyone become suspicious of the mysterious old man who just visited.

      As to nurarihyon’s origins there is only speculation, for the oldest records of his existence are mere sketches and paintings. His name connotes a slippery evasiveness – which he employs when posing as master of the house. Its name comes from “nurari” (to slip away) and “hyon” (an onomatopoeia describing floating upwards) written with the kanji for gourd (due to the shape of his head).

      In Okayama, some evidence exists linking nurarihyon to umi-bōzu. There, nurarihyon are globe-shaped sea creatures, about the size of a mans head, which float about in the Seto Inland Sea. When fisherman try to catch one, the sphere sinks down into the water just out reach and then bobs back up mockingly. It has been theorized that some of these slippery globes migrate to land, where they gradually gain influence and power, becoming the nurarihyon known throughout the rest of Japan. Whether this theory is the true origin of the Supreme Commander of All Monsters or just one more of his many mysteries is yet to be solved.

      Abura-Akago Abura akago are yōkai from Ōmi Province. They are a type of hi no tama, or fireball, but can also take on the shape of a baby.
      Abura akago first appear as mysterious orbs of fire which float aimlessly through the night sky. They drift from house to house and—upon entering one—transform into small babies. In this baby form, they lick the oil from oil lamps and paper lanterns, known as andon. They then turn back into orbs and fly away.
      Like many other oil-related yōkai, abura akago are said to originate from oil thieves. While the particular circumstances of these oil thieves are lost to time, they mirror so many other yōkai that we can infer that these thieves died and—instead of passing on to the next life—turned into yōkai as a penalty for their sins.
      Toriyama Sekien's accompanying notes describe it:In the eighth town of Ōtsu in Ōmi ("Afumi") Province there exists a flying ball-like fire.
      The natives say that long ago in the village of Shiga there was a person who stole oil, and every night he stole the oil from the Jizō of the Ōtsu crossroads, but when this person died his soul became a flame and even now they grow accustomed to this errant fire.
      If it is so then the baby which licks the oil is this person's rebirth.

      Abura-Sumashi is a rare yokai native to Kumamoto. It looks like a squat humanoid with a large ugly head like a potato or a stone, wearing a straw-woven raincoat. It is extremely rare, only found deep in the mountains or along mountain passes in the southern parts of Japan – throughout the range where wild tea plants grow.
      Very little is known about the lifestyle and habits of this reclusive yokai. The most well-known abura sumashi lives in the Kusazumigoe Pass in Kumamoto, but only ever appears briefly to travelers. Occasionally, an old grandmother walking the pass with her grandchildren will say, “You know, a long time ago, an abura sumashi used to live in these parts.” And occasionally a mysterious voice will call out in reply, “I still do!” Sometimes the abura sumashi even appears to the travelers, materializing out of thin air.
      The name abura sumashi means “oil presser,” and comes from the act of pressing oil out of the seeds of tea plants which grow in Kumamoto. Though its origins are a mystery, it is commonly believed that abura sumashi are the ghosts of oil thieves who escaped into the woods. Oil was a very difficult and expensive commodity to make, requiring a lot of time and hard work to extract it from tea seeds, and so its theft was a very serious crime. Those thieves who went unpunished in life were reincarnated as yokai – a sort of divine punishment for their sins.
      In modern media the abura-sumashi is often depicted as, "a squat creature with a straw-coat covered body and a potato-like or stony head," an appearance inspired by the artwork of Shigeru Mizuki.

      Rokurokubi (轆轤首 or ろくろくび, Rokurokubi) is a type of Japanese yōkai. They often appear in classical kaidan and essays, and they are often the subject of yōkai depictions, but it has also been pointed out that they may have simply been created as a pastime for inventing supernatural stories. Tales of "when people sleep, their necks would stretch" started appearing in the Edo period and afterwards, in literature such as "Buya Zokuda" (武野俗談), "Kanden Kōhitsu" (閑田耕筆』), "Yasō Kidan" (夜窓鬼談), etc.
      This type of rokurokubi comes from legends that say that the rokurokubi (nukekubi) have a spiritual string-like object connecting the head to the torso, and it can be said that this type originates from people mistaking the string (depicted in works by people like Sekien) for an elongated neck.
      In the "Kasshi Yawa" (甲子夜話), there is the following tale. A certain female student was suspected to be a rokurokubi, and when this servant's master went to check on her when she was sleeping, something like steam gradually rose from her chest, and when it became quite thick, her head would disappear, and right before one's eyes, her appearance turned into one with her neck risen up and stretched. Perhaps because she noticed the presence of her surprised master, when the female servant turned over in bed, her neck returned to normal. This female servant was ordinary and other than the fact that she had a pale face, she was no different from an ordinary human, but her master dismissed her. She was always fired wherever she went, and thus had no luck with finding places of employment. This "Kasshi Yawa" and the aforementioned "Hokusō Sadan" where the souls that leave the body would create the shape of a neck, has sometimes been interpreted as a type of "ectoplasm" in psychic research.
      In the yomihon "Rekkoku Kaidan Kikigaki Zōshi" (列国怪談聞書帖) by the popular writer Jippensha Ikku in the late Edo period, rokurokubi are stated to be from human's karma. A certain monk from Enshū named Kaishin and a woman named Oyotsu eloped, but since Oyotsu collapsed due to illness, and since they ran out of money for the journey, he killed her. Afterwards, when Kaishin returned to secular life, when he and a girl of an inn he stayed at became attracted to each other and slept together, the girl's neck stretched and her face turned into Oyotsu, and told him about her resentment. Kaishin became regretful of the past, and spoke about everything to the girl's father. When he did so, the father said that he also killed a woman in the past and stole her money, and used the money to start that inn, but the girl that was born afterwards, due to karma, naturally became a rokurokubi. Kaishin once again entered Buddhist priesthood, and built a grave for Oyotsu, and it is said to be the "Rokurokubi Mound" (ろくろ首の塚, Rokurokubi no Tsuka), telling the story to people afterwards.
      There is also the story that rokurokubi are not yōkai, but rather humans with a type of abnormal body condition, and the Edo Period essay "Kanden Kōhitsu" by Ban Kōkei gave an example of a story where in Shin Yoshiwara, a certain geisha had her neck stretch during sleep, stating that it was a body condition where her heart would come loose and neck would stretch.
      It was not merely in literature, but also in oral traditions that rokurokubi are talked about, and in a former highway between the village of Iwa and Akechi of Gifu Prefecture, it is said that a snake shapeshifted into a rokurokubi. According to an oral tradition in Koikubo of Iida, Nagano Prefecture, it is said that a rokurokubi appeared in someone's home.
      In the Bunka period, a kaidan story became popular, where a certain prostitute co-slept with guests, and when the guest fell asleep, her neck would smoothly stretch and would lick the oil of paper lanterns, and thus rokurokubi were talked about as things that women transform into like this, or a type of srange disease. Also in this time period, rokurokubi gained much popularity as something shown in freak shows. According to the "Shohō Kenbunroku" (諸方見聞録), there was a statement that in 1810 (Bunka 7) a freak show house in a section of Edo actually had a male with a long neck who was famed as a rokurokubi.
      Even going into the Meiji period, there are tales of rokurokubi. In the beginning of Meiji, it is said that a certain couple of a merchant family in the town of Shibaya, Ibaraki, Osaka Prefecture witnessed their daughter's neck stretch every night, and there was no effect even when upon relying on Shinto and Buddhism, and eventually the people in the town also came to know of this, and as the couple became unable to endure staying there, they moved away, leaving no notice of their whereabouts.

      The Yuki-Onna (雪女 or ゆきおんな, Yuki-Onna) is a snow woman ghost described as inhumanly beautiful, whose eyes can strike terror into mortals that get lost traveling in the snowy mountains. She floats across the snow, leaving no footprints.Yuki-onna appears on snowy nights as a tall, beautiful woman with long black hair and blue lips. Her inhumanly pale or even transparent skin makes her blend into the snowy landscape (as famously described in Lafcadio Hearn's Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things). She sometimes wears a white kimono, but other legends describe her as nude, with only her face and hair standing out against the snow. Despite her inhuman beauty, her eyes can strike terror into mortals. She floats across the snow, leaving no footprints (in fact, some tales say she has no feet, a feature of many Japanese ghosts), and she can transform into a cloud of mist or snow if threatened.

      Some legends say the Yuki-onna, being associated with winter and snowstorms, is the spirit of someone who perished in the snow. She is at the same time beautiful and serene, yet ruthless in killing unsuspecting mortals. Until the 18th century, she was almost uniformly portrayed as evil. Today, however, stories often color her as more human, emphasizing her ghost-like nature and ephemeral beauty.

      In many stories, Yuki-onna appears to travelers trapped in snowstorms, and uses her icy breath to leave them as frost-coated corpses. Other legends say she leads them astray so they simply die of exposure. Other times, she manifests holding a child. When a well-intentioned soul takes the "child" from her, they are frozen in place. Parents searching for lost children are particularly susceptible to this tactic. Other legends make Yuki-onna much more aggressive. In these stories, she often invades homes, blowing in the door with a gust of wind to kill residents in their sleep (some legends require her to be invited inside first).

      What Yuki-onna is after varies from tale to tale. Sometimes she is simply satisfied to see a victim die. Other times, she is more vampiric, draining her victims' blood or "life force." She occasionally takes on a succubus-like manner, preying on weak-willed men to drain or freeze them through sex or a kiss.

      Like the snow and winter weather she represents, Yuki-onna has a softer side. She sometimes lets would-be victims go for various reasons. In one popular Yuki-onna legend, for example, she sets a young boy free because of his beauty and age. She makes him promise never to speak of her, but later in life, he tells the story to his wife who reveals herself to be the snow woman. She reviles him for breaking his promise, but spares him again, this time out of concern for their children (but if he dares mistreat their children, she will return with no mercy. Luckily for him, he is a loving father). In some versions, she chose not to kill him because he told her, which she did not treat as a broken promise (technically, Yuki-Onna herself is not a human, and thus did not count). In a similar legend, Yuki-onna melts away once her husband discovers her true nature. However, she departs to the afterlife afterward the same way.

      A long time ago, there lived two woodcutters, Minokichi and Mosaku. Minokichi was young and Mosaku was very old.

      One winter day, they could not come back home because of a snowstorm. They found a hut in the mountain and decided to sleep there. On this particular evening, Mosaku woke up and found a beautiful lady with white clothes. She breathed on old Mosaku and he was frozen to death.
      She then approached Minokichi to breathe on him, but stared at him for a while, and said, "I thought I was going to kill you, the same as that old man, but I will not, because you are young and beautiful. You must not tell anyone about this incident. If you tell anyone about me, I will kill you."
      Several years later, Minokichi met a beautiful young lady, named Oyuki (yuki = "snow") and married her. She was a good wife. Minokichi and Oyuki had several children and lived happily for many years. Mysteriously, she did not age.
      One night, after the children were asleep, Minokichi said to Oyuki: "Whenever I see you, I am reminded of a mysterious incident that happened to me. When I was young, I met a beautiful young lady like you. I do not know if it was a dream or if she was a Yuki-onna..."
      After finishing his story, Oyuki suddenly stood up, and said "That woman you met was me! I told you that I would kill you if you ever told anyone about that incident. However, I can't kill you because of our children. Take care of our children... " Then she melted and disappeared. No one saw her again.

      Futakuchi-Onna (二口女 or ふたくちおんな, Futakuchi-Onna) is a type of yōkai that is characterized by it's two mouths – a normal one located on her face and second one on the back of the head beneath the hair. There, the woman's skull splits apart, forming lips, teeth and a tongue, creating an entirely functional second mouth.

      In Japanese mythology and folklore, the futakuchi-onna belongs to the same class of stories as the rokurokubi, kuchisake-onna, and Yamauba.women afflicted with a curse or supernatural disease that transforms them into yōkai. The supernatural nature of the women in these stories is usually concealed until the last minute, when the true self is revealed.

      The origin of a futakuchi-onna's second mouth is often linked to how little a woman eats. In many stories, the soon-to-be futakuchi-onna is a wife of a miser and rarely eats. To counteract this, a second mouth mysteriously appears on the back of the woman's head. The second mouth often mumbles spiteful and threatening things to the woman and demands food. If it is not fed, it can screech obscenely and cause the woman tremendous pain. Eventually, the woman's hair begins to move like a pair of serpents, allowing the mouth to help itself to the woman's meals. While no food passes through her normal lips, the mouth in the back of her head consumes twice what the other one would. In another story, the extra mouth is formed when a stingy woman is accidentally hit in the head by her husband's axe while he is chopping wood, and the wound never heals. Other stories have the woman as a mother who lets her stepchild die of starvation while keeping her own offspring well fed; presumably, the spirit of the neglected child lodges itself in the stepmother's or the surviving daughter's body to exact revenge.

      Families which notice their food stocks are shrinking at an alarming rate while the women in their houses rarely eat a bite may be the victims of a futakuchi onna infestation. Futakuchi onna appear just as a regular women until their terrible secret is revealed: in the back of their skulls, buried beneath of long, thick hair, is a second mouth, with large, fat lips, and full of teeth. This second mouth is ravenous, and uses long strands of hair like tentacles to gorge itself on any food it can find.
      In a small rural village in Fukushima there lived a stingy miser who, because he could not bear the thought of paying for food to support a family, lived entirely by himself. One day he met a woman who did not eat anything at all, and he immediately took her for his wife. Because she never ate a thing, and was still a hard worker, the miser was thrilled with her. However, his stores of rice were steadily decreasing, and he could not figure why, for he never saw his wife eat. One day the miser pretended to leave for work, but instead stayed behind to spy on his new wife. She untied her hair, revealing a second mouth on the back of her head, complete with ghastly lips and teeth. Her hair reached out with tentacle-like stalks and began to scoop rice balls into the second mouth, with cooed out with pleasure in a vulgar, raspy voice.
      The miser was horrified and resolved to divorce his wife. However, she learned of his plan before he could act on it, and she trapped him in a bathtub and carried it off into the mountains. The miser managed to escape, and hid in a heavily-scented lily marsh, where the futakuchi-onna could not find him.

      Another story tells of a wicked stepmother who always gave plenty of food to her own daughter, but never enough to her stepdaughter. Gradually the stepdaughter grew sicker and sicker, until she starved to death. Forty-nine days later, the wicked stepmother was afflicted with a terrible headache. The back of her head split open, and lips, teeth, and a tongue formed. The new mouth ached with debilitating pain until it was fed, and it shrieked in the voice of the dead stepdaughter. From then on the stepmother always had to feed both of her mouths, and always felt the hunger pangs of the stepdaughter she murdered.

      Yama-uba (山姥 or やまうば, Yama-uba) is a yōkai that looks like an old woman, usually a hideous one and her kimono is filthy and tattered.
      Yamauba are the old hags and witches of the Japanese mountains and forests. A kind of kijo, yama uba were once human, but were corrupted and transformed into monsters. They usually appear as kind old ladies. Some sport horns or fangs, but most often they look just like ordinary elderly women, with no sign of their evil nature until they attack.
      Yamauba live alone in huts by the road, occasionally offering shelter, food, and a place to sleep for the night to weary travelers. Late at night when their guests are fast asleep, they transform into their true shape – an ugly, old, demonic witch –and try to catch and eat their guests, often using powerful magic. Stories of encounters with yamauba have been passed along and spread by those few travelers lucky enough to escape with their lives, and are frequently told as bedtime stories to disobedient children.
      Sometimes yamauba are created when young women accused of crimes or wicked deeds flee into the wilderness and live out their lives in exile, transforming gradually over many years as they grow older. In some cases, though, their origin can be explained by an old custom from times of famine or economic hardship. When it became impossible to feed everyone in the family, often times families had to make a hard choice: remove one family member so that the rest can survive. Often this was the newly born or the elderly. Some families led their senile mothers deep into the woods and left them there to die. These abandoned old women, either out of rage or desperation, transformed into horrible monsters who feed on humans and practice black magic.
      In one Noh drama, translated as, Yamauba, Dame of the Mountain, Komparu Zenchiku states the following:
      Yamauba is the fairy of the mountains, which have been under her care since the world began. She decks them with snow in winter, with blossoms in spring ... She has grown very old. Wild white hair hangs down her shoulders; her face is very thin. There was a courtesan of the Capital who made a dance representing the wanderings of Yamauba. It had such success that people called this courtesan Yamauba though her real name was Hyakuma.
      The play takes place one evening as Hyakuma is traveling to visit the Zenko Temple in Shinano, when she accepts the hospitality of a woman who turns out to be none other than the real Yamauba, herself.
      Steve Berman's short story, “A Troll on a Mountain with a Girl” features Yamauba.
      Lafcadio Hearn, writing primarily for a Western audience, tells a tale like this:
      Then [they] saw the Yama-Uba,—the "Mountain Nurse." Legend says she catches little children and nurses them for awhile, and then devours them. The Yama-Uba did not clutch at us, because her hands were occupied with a nice little boy, whom she was just going to eat. The child had been made wonderfully pretty to heighten the effect. The spectre, hovering in the air above a tomb at some distance ... had no eyes; its long hair hung loose; its white robe floated light as smoke. I thought of a statement in a composition by one of my pupils about ghosts: "Their greatest peculiarity is that they have no feet." Then I jumped again, for the thing, quite soundlessly, but very swiftly, made through the air at me.

      Hashihime (橋姫 or はしひめ, Hashihime) is a yokai that first appeared in the Heian-period literature.
      The hash'i from Hashihime means 'bridge', while hime means 'princess', therefore her name meaning "bridge princess". However, the word airashi (pretty, adorable) can also be said hashi, so her name has the second meaning of "charming princess”.

      Hashihime are intensely jealous goddesses who inhabit bridges — in particular, very old and very long bridges. As goddesses, hashihime may take different forms depending on occasion, however they are commonly depicted wearing white robes, white face-paint, an iron trivet, and carrying five candles. This is a ceremonial outfit used to perform curses.
      Hashihime ferociously guard the bridges they inhabit. As with most gods connected to a location, they are very competitive and jealous. If one praises or speaks positively about another bridge while on top of a hashihime’s bridge, or if one recites lines from certain Noh plays that feature a woman’s wrath as the main theme, something terrible is likely to happen to that person.
      Despite their fearsome nature, they are highly honored by the people who live nearby, and shrines are established in their honor near the bridges they inhabit. In times of war, residents will beseech their local hashihime to guard the bridge against invaders. In times of peace, hashihime are goddess of separation and severing, and are asked to aid people in things such as break-ups, divorce, and severing bad luck. So strong is their power of severing that it is considered taboo for lovers to pass in front of a hashihime shrine together, or for wedding processions to pass in front of one. If newlyweds need to cross a bridge inhabited by a hashihime, they will instead pass underneath it on a boat rather than risk cursing their marriage.
      The most famous hashihime story comes from Tsurugi no Maki, in The Tale of the Heike, and is retold in the noh play Kanawa.
      A woman visited the the Kifune-jinja in Kyoto at the hour of the ox (roughly 2 am), filled with rage and jealousy towards her ex-husband who had thrown her away for another woman. Night after night she visited the shrine, praying to the gods enshrined there to turn her into a powerful demon. The woman wanted nothing else other than to see her ex-husband destroyed, even at the cost of her own life. After seven nights of pilgrimage, her prayers were answered: the gods told her that if she immersed herself in the Uji river for twenty-one nights, she would become a living demon.
      The woman did as she was bid. She donned a white robe and tied her hair up into five horns. She painted her face and covered her body in crimson dye. She placed an upturned trivet on her head and attached torches to each foot. She lit a torch on both ends and placed it in her mouth. She immersed herself in the Uji river and for twenty-one days she kindled the hatred in her heart. Then, just as the gods told her, after twenty-one days she transformed into a terrible kijo with supreme power. She had become the hashihime of Uji.
      That night, her husband awoke from a horrible dream with a premonition of danger. He quickly sought out the famous onmyōji, Abe-no-Seimei. Seimei recognized the dream as a sign that the man’s former wife would come and destroy the couple that very night, and promised to save them. He went to their house, recited magical prayers, and crafted two katashiro — magical paper doll representations of the man and his wife, meant to be used as substitutionary targets for the kijo’s rage. That night, as Seimei had predicted, the demon appeared. She attacked the two katashiro instead of the real couple, and Seimei’s magic worked: her power was reflected back upon her and she was driven away. The demon woman, realizing that she could not overcome Abe-no-Seimei’s magic, vanished, threatening that she would come back another time.

      Kejōrō (毛倡妓 or けじょうろう, Kejōrō) is a yōkai with long flowing hair who has the appearance of a prostitute and can be seen in red light districts. In Konjaku Gazu Zoku Hyakki, she is drawn as a prostitute covered in hair so dense even her face isn't visible. If a man catches sight of her from behind and, mistaking her to be a woman he knows, races over, he will be enveloped in Kejōrō's hair upon seeing her face.
      Kejōrō is a prostitute whose face and body are hidden behind a curtain of long, matted black hair. She appears in red-light districts and brothels. In most stories, it is only the hair on her head that is disturbingly thick and long, but in some stories, her whole body is covered in thick hair, like some kind of beast.
      A kejōrō’s victims are the young men who frequent brothels and red light districts. Thinking he sees a girl that he recognizes from behind, a man runs up to the kejōrō to speak with her. When she turns around, her face and body are covered by a thick mat of hair, hiding all of her features. Her victim is shocked by the horrible, hairy monster in front of him, giving her time to attack her victim, tangling him up in her hair and using it to slice him up. Despite this, reports of kejōrō-related fatalities are very rare.
      Despite her horrible appearance to humans, the kejōrō is said to be quite popular with yokai. So popular, in fact, that male yokai frequently fight each other over her, competing for her affection. Kejōrō seem to return this devotion as well; in some stories, a kejōrō will cut off her hair and send it to her lover (human or yokai), or tattoo his name into her skin to prove her undying devotion to him.
      The earliest records of kejōrō go back to Toriyama Sekien’s “One Hundred Demons of the Past and Present.” There is some debate over his original description as to whether the kejōrō has a normal face under the matte of hair, or whether she is a faceless monster, related to the nopperabō or the ohaguro-bettari, with various yokai researches weighing in on either side of the question.

      Mu-Onna (無女, Mu-Onna) is a type of yōkai, a supernatural monster.
      A Mu-onna is a vengeful spirit of a mother who lost her child to famine or war. She protects children in danger, but may also try to merge or absorb them. They can look into the child's soul to find information while merging with them. To gather the information, or to merge with them, the Mu-onna must cast a spell to put the child's soul to sleep. Since the Mu-onna is made from a mother's tender feelings, she may be willing to allow herself to be destroyed for the sake of the child.

      Daiten-Baba (大天婆, Daiten-Baba) is a creature from Japanese folklore.
      A giant yokai cat who was masquerading as a samurai mother. She attacked a monk who determined she was a yokai. When she was killed, the corpse was that of a giant cat.

      Kuchisake-Onna (口裂け女 or くちさけおんな, Kuchisake-Onna) is a Japanese yokai. She is a woman who was mutilated by her husband, and returns as a malicious spirit.When rumors of alleged sightings began spreading in 1979 around the Nagasaki Prefecture, it spread throughout Japan and caused panic in many towns. There are even reports of schools allowing children to go home only in groups escorted by teachers for safety, and of police increasing their patrols. Recent sightings include many reports in South Korea in the year 2004 about a woman wearing a red mask who was frequently seen chasing children, and, in October 2007, a coroner found some old records from the late 1970s about a woman who was chasing little children. She was then hit by a car, and died shortly after. Her mouth was ripped from ear to ear.

      The spirits of the dead who were killed in particularly violent manners – abused wives, tortured captives, defeated enemies – often do not rest well. One such spirit is kuchisake-onna, the ghost of a woman who was mutilated, come back to wreak vengeance on the world. Her name comes from the deep, bloody gash which runs across her face, grinning from ear to ear. She appears at night to lone travelers on the road, covering her grizzly mouth with a cloth mask, a fan, or a handkerchief.

      According to the legend, children walking alone at night may encounter a woman wearing a surgical mask, which is not an unusual sight in Japan as people wear them to protect others from their colds or sickness.
      The woman will stop the child and ask, "Am I pretty?" If the child answers no, the child is killed with a pair of scissors which the woman carries. If the child answers yes, the woman pulls away the mask, revealing that her mouth is slit from ear to ear, and asks "How about now?" If the child answers no, he/she will be cut in half. If the child answers yes, then she will slit his/her mouth like hers. It is impossible to run away from her, as she will simply reappear in front of the victim.
      When the legend reappeared, the 1970s rumors of ways to escape also emerged. Some sources say she can also be confused by the victim answering her question with ambiguous answers, such as "You are average" or "So-so". Unsure of what to do, she will give a person enough time to escape while she is lost in thought. Another escape route is to tell her one has a previous engagement; she will pardon her manners and excuse herself. In some variations of the tale, she can be distracted by fruit or candies thrown at her which she will then pick up, thus giving the victim a chance to run. She will also be at an advantage to run toward you if she has the chance. Another way is for the child to ask her if the child is pretty; she will get confused and leave.

      These Yokai made more sense as hobgoblins than changelings to me.

      Oboroguruma (朧車 or おぼろぐるま, Oboroguruma) is a yokai of a bullock cart that is said to run over anyone in its path. It started in Ginza around 1300 and since then is a story that has inspired many superstitions, especially in the 1920s when oxcarts were still being around daily all across the city.

      On misty, moonlit nights, residents of Kyōto occasionally hear the squeak of an oxcart in the street. Stepping outside to check and see, they discover a half-transparent, ghost-like oxcart with an enormous, grotesque face parked outside of their home.

      Carriage yōkai have existed in picture scrolls for hundreds of years. They may originally have been a kind of tsukumogami, or object-turned-yōkai. Most of these scrolls were created for their vivid imagery rather than for any particular story. Oboroguruma may have initially been created without any backstory. When Toriyama Sekien published his yōkai bestiaries, he included the oboroguruma and gave a description. He linked it to a famous scene in The Tale of Genji when Lady Rokujō and her rival Lady Aoi competed for a parking space and got into a carriage fight.

      Long ago, sightseeing in the capital was accomplished by means of oxcart taxis. When it got crowded—particularly during festival seasons—the taxi drivers got into carriage fights. They slammed their carriages against each other to grab the best spots for sightseeing. Just like parking can be a problem in cities today, parking in ancient Kyōto was a huge source of frustration.

      The resentment of nobles who didn’t get the prime sightseeing spot they wanted was something to be feared. The negative feelings could build up and become a powerful force of their own, which is where these yōkai come from. Oboroguruma materialized out of the wrath of nobles who lost these carriage fights and were not able to reserve the sightseeing spots that they wanted.

      Hitodama (人魂 or ひとだま, Hitodama) are believed in Japanese folklore to the souls of the newly dead, taking form as mysterious fiery apparitions. Hitodama are said to be found in graveyards or in gloomy forests in summer time. Most Hitodama fade away or fall to the ground shortly after being spotted.

      When you are alone and meet the complete blueness of a hitodama, you would naturally think of it as the sorrow on a rainy night — Man'yōshū (Amasaki book) Chapter 16
      They are frequently confused with onibi and kitsunebi, but since hitodama are considered to be the "appearance of souls that have left the body and fly through the air," they are strictly speaking a different general idea.
      Concerning their shape and nature, there are common features throughout Japan, but some differences could also be seen depending on the area. They fly crawling along at an elevation that is not very high. They have a color that is blue, orange, or red, and also have a tail, but it can either be short or long. There are also a few that have been seen during daytime.
      In the Okinawa Prefecture, hitodama are called "tamagai", and in Nakijin, they are said to appear before a child is born and in some areas are also said to be mysterious flames that drive off humans to death.

      In Kawakami, Inba District, Chiba Prefecture, (now Yachimata), hitodama are called "tamase," and are said to come out of the body 2 or 3 days after a human dies, and go toward temples or people they have a deep relation with, and are said to make a great sound in storm shutters and gardens, but it is said that this sound can only be heard by those who have a deep relation with the spirit. Also, for those who have not seen a tamase by the time they are 28 years of age, a tamase would come towards them saying "let's meet, let's meet (aimashou, aimashou)" so even those who have not seen one when they are 28 years old will pretend to have seen one.
      According to one theory, "since funerals before the war were burials, so it would be common for the phosphorus that come from the body to react to the rain water on rainy nights and produce light, and the meager knowledge about science from the masses produced the idea of hitodama.”

      Another possibility is that they come from fireflies, of which three species are common in Japan: Luciola cruciata (源氏 ホタル, Genji hotaru; meaning „Genji´s firefly“), Luciola lateralis (平家 ホタル, Heike hotaru; meaning "firefly from Heike"), and Colophotia praeusta. All these snail-eating beetles and their larvae are famous for their ability to make special body parts glow (bioluminescence) and make them blink rhythmically. Every year at the Fusa-park in Tokyo the legendary feast Hotarugari (蛍狩り; meaning "firefly catching") is celebrated. They have also been thought to possibly be misrecognitions of shooting stars, animals that have luminous bryophytes attached to them, gasses that come from swamps, light bulbs, or visual hallucinations. There have also been some "artificial hitodama" created using combustible gases (an experiment in 1976 by the Meiji University professor, Masao Yamana using methane gas).
      In the 1980s, the Yoshiko Ootsuki posited the idea that they are "plasma from the air.”

      However, there are some hitodama that cannot be explained by the ab


      • #4
        Here is an interesting myth that might be explored in a global changeling book.
        The south sea island of Mangaia lies 110 miles south of Rarotonga. Legends of her people have survived through the years. This is the story of Tamangori, a giant whose name still strikes fear in the hearts of the people of Mangaia.

        Tamangori stood over nine feet tall. He always tied his long black hair in the traditional bun style of the people of Mangaia. What made him especially frightening was his ability to move silently. A person was never sure whether Tamangori was around the corner or not. Knowing that the giant hunted humans made him more frightening. When tamagori became hungry, he would leave his cave amongst the corals and make his way towards the village. He loved to eat humans, especially nice fat ones. Usually, Tamagori liked to choose his prey. Waiting beside the track leading from the village to the seaside, Tamangori would keep an eye out for the most delicious looking meat.

        The people in the villages who did not like this cannibal's eating habits were also fearful of what might become of them and their families. They wanted to kill Tamangori. But even the best warriors who met the giant could not match his skill and strength.

        Finding Tamangori was also not easy. So for many years the occassional fisherman or wandering villager was lost. many of them became part of Tamangori's menu.

        On the other side of the island of Mangaia, in a village called Ivirua, lived two brothers called Pa and Pe. They both loved making traps of all kinds, using trees and branches. Usually the brothers caught birds and native rats. On one of their hunting excursions the boys remembered about Tamangori's love for rat meat. As they looked at their rats tied up in a heap, they decided to venture further than they had ever dared. The brothers walked a few more miles. Then they stopped to build a fire. They also placed a volcanic rock on the fire. As evening approached, Pa threw thr cleancd rats into the fire and carefully barbecued them. Pe went into the bushes to set some more traps. The smell of the cooking rats travelled through the evening air. It soon reached the nostrils of the giant, Tamangori. It was Tamangori's favorite food. The rumors were true. If there was anything he loved more than human meat, it was cooked rats. Tamangori followed the smell. It led him to the two brothers had made. In his enthusiasm the noise made by the giant, warned the waiting brothers. Pa and Pe quickly arranged the cooked rats in a neat pile and hid in the trees. Tamangori came and saw the rats.

        A ha, Tamangori shouted, who owns this?
        Pa threw the "cleaned" rats into the fire and carefully barbecued them.
        You, came the answer from the bushes.

        Why me? asked Tamangori.

        Because you are the king of the island. Tamangori smiled. Indeed he was a King. His attention returned to the food on the rocks. Quickly he devoured them all.

        More! he shouted.

        Pe came running out with more rats. He threw them on the fire and took out the cooked ones. Tamangori had already devoured over 40 rats. Soon Tamangori lay back against the rock and closed his eyes. The meal was too much. The giant dozed to sleep.

        The brothers eyed each other and approached the giant. they worked quickly. As their volcanic rock heated up, a sharp thin stick was also silently prepared. Making sure that all was ready, Pe picked up the stick and drove it through the ears of tamangori. Simultaneously, Pa threw the hot rock onto the eyes of the giant.

        Tamangori screamed and opened his eyes just as the rock hit them. the pain was too much. A momentous piercing scream bid farewell to the once proud giant. Tamangori fell and never stood again. The man-eating giant was no more.


        • #5
          Šumske dekle ("forest girls") also known as forest maids and Woodland Lasses are wild women of Croatia (ved, vedi female) that were observed prior to World War I. They are covered with reddish or black hair, except for the face, square elf-like head and long strong arms.
          They are described to be a little shorter then humans even though they are much stronger with longer arms and legs.
          They never speak with humans but they can be heared shrieking and screaming in the woods (probably the way of vocal/gestural communication)

          Their sightings stop after WWI.

          If Šumske Dekle really existed, the whole species could be accidentally wiped out by the war
          "Šumske dekle-Ved, Vedi-Unconfirmed Hominid-Croatia"-Jay Dee`s Unknown shades

          "Shrieks and screams. Sometimes visits houses or stables in search of warmith and food. Said to harvest grain, bake bread and catch fish. Able to breed with humans..."-Mysterious creatures:Guide to Cryptozoology

          Habitiat: Woodlands

          Distribution (location): between Novigrad, Podravski and Ferdinandovac-Croatia

          "Forest maid is a hairy woman who is always looking for warmth so she crawls among cattle, among the shepherds when they sleep in the hayloft, she is not malicious."-Legend of Croatian Fairies
          When humans leave food out for them they will return the favour by cleaning their houses.

          #1- One winter around 1870 two brothers named Paurović were sleeping in their stable at Severovac, Croatia.

          One of the two brothers woke up to find a hairy forest girl standing between them. He touched her, and she ran out the door. They chased her, but it was snowing so they couldn`t catch her. "And how did the girl survive the heavy snow storm at the first place," the brothers wondered.

          #2- Far, far away in the Plava Šuma, a man had a pig wheel. He killed pigs and went into woods to clect honey every fall. This time he sat under the hive and saw human footprints in the mud and said to him self:

          "I need this honey for winter, I really hope no one steals it before me!"
          He turned around and then he saw it!

          Hairy all over her body, seeing only her eyes and mouth. Her long hairy arms dragged through the mud. Man was afraid, of that creature, but snatched the pole and started beating it. Stinging it hardest an old man like him could. A creature screams and cover its eyes with its long hands. Its hands were very long. The man noticed that it was not the voice of a man.

          "God, it is the forest maid (Šumska Dekla)!”

          It was really a forest girl. I stopped beating her, but she pushed the pole, pushed below the hive, and she took the honey. She left, she went away.
          Man stops chasing her and returns to his shed.

          #3- A few more sightings took place (mostly in Plava Šuma), but they stopped after WWI.


          Šumske dekle are a type of species called Vedi.

          A ved ("forest man") is a mythological being recorded in the region of Bilogora in northern Croatia, predominantly among the region's speakers of the Kajkavian dialect. The vedi (plural) were described as male human-like creatures as high as a peasant house, completely covered with hair. They were very strong, able to uproot trees and carry heavy loads, while their chest was so large that they could make storms by blowing. When they spoke or sang, it was heard far away. They lived deep in the forests of Bilogora, where they built their towns, and were divided into tribes.[1]

          There were good and bad vedi. The latter did not associate with people and stayed in their forests, because of which they were also called the forest vedi. They normally did no harm to people, but if a bad ved encountered a young man in a forest, he would take him to his town and keep him as a slave for some time. The man would be often maltreated by his master, and eventually set free emaciated.[1]

          The good vedi visited people and helped them in their every-day work or troubles. Each household had its own ved who was very devoted to it, often to the extent that he did harm to other households and their vedi. If people expected a flood, storm, or other calamity, they would pray, "Grant, Oh God, that our vedi help us!" or "Dear God, grant that our vedi help us, and that their vedi do no harm to us!" Stories have it that after such prayers the vedi would quickly come to rescue.[1]

          Last accounts of vedi visiting people date from the mid 19th century. In the end only certain individuals were allegedly able to see them.[1]

          "Long time ago from the mountains of Bilo-gora all the way to Kalinovac and Ferdinandovac near Drava (river) big forest streched. In the forest there were a lots of beasts and animals, but-by the belif- some of unusual human-like creatures. Residents of the county called them Vedi."-Mitološke predaje Bilo-gore (Mytological tales of Bilo-gora)

          "They were tall humanoid creatures (normal Vedi is male while Šumska Dekla is female), their body was like humans except covered with hair. When they talk and sing, it`s heard far away. They were very strong and could weight heavy burdon.

          It seems they that were dressed, but their clothes had to very poor judging by the saying "Zdrpan si kak Ved (Your ragged like a Ved)" wich is still heard in those parts.

          They lived in tribes in the depths of the forest and had their own villages. It`s unknown how their villages look like but they had to be big becuase on some land clearing you can find some giant bricks."-Legend of Vedi
          "Belif in Vedi started in the middle of the 19th cenury, they are almost forgotten in their native land..."-The centre of fourten zoology CFZ
          ad or Hudi vedi didn`t hung out with humans, instead they stayed in their forest. So they were called forest Vedi or šumski Vedi. They didn`t kill humans, but if they found a younger human in the forest they would take him in their village and held him there as a slave for a long time.

          They also tortured him, but finaly they would let him go all exhausted and hungry.

          Good Vedi helped people, almost every house had their Ved that helped them.

          That type of Ved was so loyal ti his human that he did bad things to other houses, people and their Ved -
          chased their livestock, brake walls etc.

          Another example is male and female Vedi. Female Vedi are Šumske Dekle, name of males is unknown, they are refered to just as Vedi.
          Although there are not so many sightings of Šumske Dekle like there are of male Vedi, some people describe them like an ape like humanoid women and some like humanoid fairies with long arms and legs.

          Ved was very attached to his human. This is a quote from an old book from Ivan Matejak from Ferdinandovac in 1961: (translated from Croatian to English)

          "Every human from this parts had a Ved who helped him with his house. In his garden the Ved made a cherry tree wich never dies. On the top there were big, red, juicy cherries that the human couldn`t reach so he called out the Ved who was tall to help him. So he did. They all feasted on the cherries…"

          "People also gave their Vedi names by the fields in the county like Miklići, Patački, Bušica etc."-Željko Krčmar (1942)

          Some families even take the name of their Vedi an make it their family name like Patački is a often name (surname) in those parts.

          Vedi is not immortal and can die like a human. That is a conclusion people made becuase they found skeletons in the forest (shin bones were 70-80 cm wide). According to the legend one resident was doing tillage when he found a Vedi grave .


          • #6
            The Qallupilluk or Qallupilluit are marine creatures from Inuit mythology. They are often described as having scaly and bumpy skin, not unlike a sculpin. It is said that these are ugly creatures and that they reek of sulfur.
            The Qallupilluk is a child-snatcher. No one really knows why these creatures love to take children. Perhaps they take children because they are lonely and like the company, or maybe they like how children taste? Or is there perhaps an even darker reason for the snatching?

            Many stories of the Qallupilluk tell of them wearing eider duck clothing with large pouches on their back to carry children in. The Qallupilluk hides in the ocean, waiting for children to play alone on the beach or near the breaking ice.

            Usually the Qallupilluk jump out of the water and grab children without any warning. Sometimes, however, you can hear them knocking under the ice. Some elders have said that if the ocean begins to become wavy in an area or steam begins to rise from the ocean, a Qallupilluk might be hiding underneath the water.

            One thing is certain, whether a Qallupilluk is hiding in the water or not, it is never safe to play alone on the beach or near the broken pans of sea ice.
            The Qallupulluit is almost definitely a version of a water dwelling bogeyman


            • #7
              This would make a fun Chinese hobgoblin.

              Like the Chinese dragon, the Qilin is composed of different animals. Over the centuries, however, the depiction of the Qilin has changed. In general, the Qilin is said to have an equine-like body. Thus, the Qilin may have the body of a deer, or an ox, or a horse. The body of the Qilin is also covered with the scales of a fish, and is often enveloped in fire. As for its head, it is quite similar to the Chinese dragon, yet, even this feature has its variations over time. Some Qilin, for example, have been depicted with a single horn. Hence, the Qilin has been compared to the European unicorn, and has been dubbed as the ‘Chinese Unicorn’, while others are shown with antlers. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that the Qilin and the Chinese Unicorn are two separate mythological creatures altogether.

              Although the Qilin may be terrifying to behold, legends describe it as a gentle and peaceful creature. In Buddhist depictions of the creature, for instance, the Qilin is shown to be walking on clouds, as it refuses to harm even a single blade of grass by walking on it. Yet, in some stories, the Qilin is capable of incinerating people, and possesses a variety of supernatural powers. These abilities are only revealed, however, when it is required to defend innocent people from the malice of evil-doers.

              As the Qilin is believed to be a benevolent creature, its appearance is regarded as an auspicious sign. It is also believed that the Qilin would only appear during the reign of a good ruler, or shortly before the birth or death of a sage. According to popular belief, the birth of one of China’s greatest sages, Confucius, was made known when a Qilin appeared to his pregnant mother. This Qilin coughed up an inscribed jade tablet that foretold the future greatness of the child in the womb. Furthermore, when a Qilin was injured by a charioteer, it was taken as a foreshadowing of the death of Confucius.

              Since the Qilin was associated with greatness, it would be of little wonder that that the Chinese emperors wanted one to appear during their reign, so that he may enhance his reputation. One Ming emperor had his chance in the 15 th century. In 1414, the fleet of Zheng He returned to China after its voyage to East Africa. The gifts that were brought back included a pair of giraffes. These were bought from merchants when the fleet landed in modern day Somalia. Due to some similarities between the giraffes and the Qilin, the Emperor Yongle proclaimed these animals as magical, and saw them as a legitimisation of his greatness. Incidentally, the word for Qilin in Korean ( Girin) and Japanese ( Kirin) are actually the same ones used for giraffe. This shows the long lasting influence of the Chinese identification of the giraffe with the Qilin.

              Apart from this linguistic influence, the Qilin has also had an influence on the cultural heritage of the Hakka (a Chinese dialect group) people. The Qilin dance is similar to the more common lion dance, both of which are usually performed during the Lunar New Year. Although the basic form and the ritual of the Qilin dance is similar to that of the lion, the pattern of steps, gestures, and music are quite distinct from its more famous counterpart. Although the Qilin dance is relatively obscure, it seems that it is getting more popular today. Thus, the Qilin will probably become better known as more people come to know about it and its place in Chinese mythology.


              • #8
                Here are two creatures that would make interesting Asian Changelings or Hobgoblins.
                Also known as Tianlu or Bixie, Pixiu is one of the five auspicious animals in ancient Chinese mythology, the other four being the dragon, phoenix, tortoise, and Chinese unicorn. Pixiu is considered a wealth-bringing divine animal with a dragon's head, a horse's body and a unicorn's feet. The animal, capable of flying, looks like a lion and has gray fur.

                Pixiu is fierce and powerful by nature. As such, it is in charge of patrolling duty in the sky to keep demons, ghosts, plagues and diseases at bay. It has a mouth but no anus, so it just swallows things inside without passing anything out. That's why it is regarded as a divine accumulator of wealth from all sides without letting anything out.

                Like the dragon and the lion, Pixiu is also believed to be an animal capable of driving away the evil sprits of a particular place and bringing happiness and good luck. But unlike Chinese unicorn, Pixiu is an auspicious animal with a ferocious nature and fierce loyalty in protecting its master. It is considered a house-guarding animal with the ability to ward off evil spirits. That’s why many Chinese people wear jade ornaments shaped like a Pixiu.

                There are a lot of different legend versions about the dragon and its nine sons in Chinese folk culture, but the number of the dragon's sons is believed to be a lot more than nine. Pixiu is said to be the ninth prince of the Dragon King, and its staple food is gold, silver and jewelry. It is naturally shining with brilliance and looks far more handsome than other auspicious animals like the three-legged toad. Pixiu was therefore in favor with the Jade Emperor and the Dragon King.

                Anyway, eating too much may well lead to bowel disorders. One day, Pixiu relieved the bowels before he could go to the toilet, which angered the Jade Emperor, who gave him a slap on the buttocks. As a result, Pixiu's anus was sealed up. After that, gold, silver and jewelry could only go into his body and couldn't come out. Along with the spread of this story, Pixiu was regarded as an auspicious animal capable of bringing in wealth, and it was considered a propitious animal that could turn disasters into good fortune by ancient Chinese fengshui masters.

                Dokkaebi, also known as Korean goblins, possess extraordinary powers and abilities that are used to interact with humans, at times playing tricks on them and at times helping them.

                Dokkaebi are different from ghosts in that they are not formed by the death of a human being, but rather by the spiritual possession of an inanimate object such as old discarded household tools like brooms, or objects stained with human blood.

                The physical appearance of the dokkaebi is presented in many different ways and has varied by different time periods, but they have always been depicted as fearsome and awe-inspiring. The most common depiction of them is based on ancient roof tiles with dokkaebi patterns.

                Different versions of the dokkaebi mythology assign different attributes to them. In some cases they are considered harmless but nevertheless mischievous, usually playing pranks on people or challenging wayward travelers to a wrestling match for the right to pass. Dokkaebi are extremely skilled at wrestling and cannot be beaten unless their right side is exploited. In other tales, dokkaebi only have one leg, so one should hook their leg and push them to win.

                Dokkaebi fire is a glimmering light or tall blue flames that herald the appearance of dokkaebi.

                Dokkaebi possess magical items such as the dokkaebi hat called the dokkaebi gamtu (도깨비 감투), which grants the wearer the ability of invisibility, and the dokkaebi magic club called the dokkaebi bangmangi (도깨비 방망이), which can summon things like a magic wand.

                Dokkaebi have immense supernatural powers, can bring good harvests, big catches and great fortunes to humans, and are defenders against evil spirits. Rituals are held to appeal to dokkaebi to bring benefit to humans.

                Some communities hold rituals to chase away dokkaebi, who are thought to be the causes of fires and contagious diseases.

                Most Korean legends have Dokkaebi in the stories. They are about Dokkaebi playing pranks on mortals or punishing them because of their evil deeds. One of them is about an old man who lived alone in a mountain when a Dokkaebi visited his house. With surprise, the kind old man gave the Dokkaebi an alcoholic beverage and they become friends. The Dokkaebi visited the old man often and they had long conversations together, but one day, the man took a walk by himself in the woods near the river and discovered that his reflection looked like the Dokkaebi. With fear, he realized that he was gradually becoming that creature. The man made a plan to prevent himself from becoming a Dokkaebi and invited the creature to his house. He asked, "What are you most afraid of?" and the Dokkaebi answered, "I'm afraid of blood. What are you afraid of?" The man pretended to be frightened and said, "I'm afraid of money. That's why I live in the mountains by myself." The next day, the old man killed a cow and poured its blood all over his house. The Dokkaebi, with shock and great anger, ran away and said, "I'll be back with your greatest fear!" The next day, the Dokkaebi brought bags of money and threw it to the old man. After that, Dokkaebi never came back and the old man became the richest person in the town.


                • #9
                  These two would make fun hobgoblins in a Indian/Hindu Changeling setting.
                  In Hindu mythology, Uchchaihshravas is a seven headed horse born during the churning of the milk ocean. It is said to be the mount of the god-king of heaven or the demon king, Bali.

                  Here is the story about its and the White Elephant Airvata's births:

                  Indra, King of Heaven and the gods, keeps the King of Horses, Uchchaihshravas as one of his trusted mounts. Their love for each other is infinite and there is nothing they would not do for one another. Indra is the only “master” Uchchaihshravas has ever known, and at the beginning of their companionship, Uchchaihshravas often approached Indra with curiosity. Indra was strolling through the heavenly gardens on one of these occasions. The seven-headed white horse pricked his ears up and nickered when he caught Indra's scent, and then he eagerly pranced to Indra from the patch of luscious blue clovers and grasses he had been grazing upon.

                  “Oh greatest Deva of all, when I graze in solitude, I reflect on my life and many questions occur to me about myself that only a parent could answer to a child. You are all I have–my father, my brother and my master. Why is this so? Why have I no sire or dam like the horses we see on Earth?” Uchchaishravas asked sweetly.

                  Indra stopped and stroked his beloved friend’s seven milky white forelocks, and then climbed up onto Uchchaihshravas’ back.

                  “Take me for a ride down the path I was strolling, and I’ll tell you,” Indra said softly.

                  They drifted along a path laid with platinum and smoothed crystals, past translucent glowing trees in varying shades of purple, blue and pink. Uchchaihshravas turned all fourteen of his ears back towards Indra, and the King of Heaven began the story.

                  “In ancient times, before the memory of man, the sea was pure milk made from the breast of Mother Earth. There was no sweeter milk in existence, and this milk would never spoil.

                  My only mount at this time, Airavata the elephant, carried me across its shores often, and at one point we came across Sage Durvasa, who presented me with a garland of fortune made by Shiva. I draped the garland over Airavata’s trunk as a sign of putting the Ego aside, but Airavata stubbornly cast the garland to the ground, knowing that my Ego was far from aside. Airavata does not enable me to mislead others in his presence, and for that I am grateful. Durvasa was angered by this display, as Sri, Goddess of Fortune–whose essence lived within that garland–was not to be cast down carelessly nor used as a symbol of false reverence. Thus Durvasa cast a curse on me and all the other gods, that we would be without fortune, energy and vigor. Truly he was right to do this; I have learned my lesson.

                  Asuras, lesser deities always seeking power, fought us and easily conquered the universe as a result of Durvasa’s curse. Out of desperation, Vishnu came up with a plan to meet with the Asuras and agree to jointly churn the milk ocean--thus producing the amrita, the elixir of immortality--and share the elixir among themselves, but take it for the gods once it was produced. Flattered and excited, the Asuras accepted the offer at once.

                  Vasuki, King of Serpents, volunteered himself to be the churning rope, and we tied him to the tall and sturdy Mount Mandara. The Asuras gathered at Vasuki's head, thinking this an advantage somehow, and the gods took the tail-end of the great amber-scaled serpent king. Churning the ocean was a painfully long process, and at first it seemed hopeless when Mount Mandara began to sink to the bottom. Vishnu, our blessed preserver, made himself into a giant sea turtle and dove beneath the mountain, propping it so that it was half above and half below the sea. We churned vehemently, forming a whirlpool that sent tidal waves of the ocean’s milk splashing and crashing every which way against the shores.

                  Many of us gods were still having our doubts when the Asuras began freezing up and dropping unconscious one by one, sucked out into the milky whirlpool. Vasuki, as instructed by ever-clever Vishnu, had been emitting toxic fumes from his nostrils, putting the Asuras into a catatonic stupor.

                  All of the gods rejoiced at this sight and we were inspired to continue on churning more strenuously than ever. The milk ocean bubbled and sizzled and then began losing its frothy nature as forms appeared before us out of the milk. As the treasures--Ratnas, as they are called--solidified, the ocean no longer shone pure white, but was clear and sparkling with salt, as it is now.

                  You, the amrita, and many other treasures and heavenly beings were born from the churning of the milk ocean. You gleam with the essence of the milk ocean, and the joys and efforts of the Devas pump through your veins. Mother Earth bore you for us, and you are divine. I chose you as my mount because I was entranced by your radiance–like that of a supernova. I loved and admired you when you first crossed my gaze, and it is an honor and a blessing to be your master.”

                  Uchchaihshravas was pleased and pervaded with glory. He laughed and whinnied and sat back partly on his thick, stout haunches, throwing his powerful forelegs out before him in a display of celebratory reverence. Indra smiled and Airavata, who had seen the two during their ride and walked side-by-side with them, sounded his trunk like a trumpet, rearing up as Uchchaishravas did.

                  Indra dismounted Uchchaihshravas, and as he turned to look at the horse, Uchchaihshravas gracefully bowed his seven heads and vowed, “I will carry you until the end of Time, and if it never ends, I will carry you forever. I am your faithful servant and friend, and I will never disobey you.”

                  “So too will I; so too am I!” Airavata shouted.
                  And so it is, and so they are.

                  Airavat a pure white winged elephant is the king-god of elephants in Indian mythology. Like Uchchaihshravas, Airavat was born during the churning of the milk ocean. It is the mount of the god Indra who was stunned by its beauty. Airavat has the ability to suck up the water of the earth and spray over all the land creating rain, which was its gift to man.

                  According to Vishnu Purana, Airavat has four tusks, seven trunks, and is pure white in color. One legend claims that he was born when Brahma sang seven sacred verses over two halves of the egg shell from which Garuda hatched. Another claims his mother is Iravati.


                  • #10
                    Maria Makiling is a Philippine diwata (goddess, fairy or forest nymph) associated with Mount Makiling in Laguna Philippines. She is the most widely known diwata in Philippine Mythology, and was venerated in pre-colonial Philippines as a goddess known as Dayang Masalanta or Dian Masalanta who was invoked to stop deluge, storms and earthquakes.

                    Maria Makiling is the guardian spirit of the mountain, responsible for protecting its bounty and thus, is also a benefactor for the townspeople who depend on the mountain's resources. In addition to being a guardian of the mountain, some legends also identify Laguna de Bay - and the fish caught from it - as part of her domain.

                    It is often said that Mount Makiling resembles the profile of a woman, said to be Maria herself. This phenomenon is described as true from several different perspectives, so there is no single location associated with this claim. The mountain's various peaks are said to be Maria's face and two breasts, respectively, and her hair cascades downwards a gentle slope away from her body.

                    Descriptions of Maria Makiling are fairly consistent. She is a breathtakingly beautiful young woman who never ages. Lanuza describes her as having "light olive skin, long shining black hair, and twinkling eyes."
                    It is said that the abundance and serenity of the enchanted mountain complements Maria's own persona.

                    She is also closely associated with the white mist that often surrounds the mountain. While in just a few stories either her skin or hair is white, in most tales, it is her radiant clothing which makes people who have seen her think that perhaps they just saw a wisp of cloud through the trees and mistook it for Maria.

                    There are several superstitions about Maria Makiling.

                    One superstition is that every so often, men would disappear into the forests of the mountain. It is said that Makiling has fallen in love with that particular man, and has taken him to her house to be her husband, there to spend his days in matrimonial bliss. Another superstition says that one can go into the forests and pick and eat any fruits one might like, but never carry any of them home. In doing so, one runs the risk of angering Maria Makiling. One would get lost, and be beset by insect stings and thorn pricks. The only solution is to throw away the fruit, and then to reverse one's clothing as evidence to Maria that one is no longer carrying any of her fruit.

                    In many other stories, Makiling is characterized as a spurned lover.
                    In one story, she fell in love with a hunter who had wandered into her kingdom. Soon the two became lovers, with the hunter coming up the mountain every day. They promised to love each other forever. When Maria discovered that he had met, fell in love with, and married a mortal woman, she was deeply hurt. Realizing that she could not trust townspeople because she was so different from them, and that they were just using her, she became angry and refused to give fruits to the trees, let animals and birds roam the forests for hunters to catch, and let fish abound in the lake. People seldom saw her, and those times when she could be seen were often only during pale moonlit nights
                    In another version of the story, told by the Philippines' National Hero, Jose Rizal, Maria falls in love with a farmer, whom she then watches over. This leads the townspeople say he is endowed with a charm, or mutya, as it is called, that protected him and his from harm. The young man was good at heart and simple in spirit, but also quiet and secretive. In particular, he would not say much of his frequent visits into the wood of Maria Makiling. But then war came to the land, and army officers came recruiting unmarried young men. The man entered an arranged marriage so that he could stay safely in the village. A few days before his marriage, he visits Maria one last time. "I would that you were consecrated to me," she said sadly, "but you need an earthly love, and you do not have enough faith in me besides. I could have protected you and your family." After saying this, she disappeared. Maria Makiling was never seen by the peasants again, nor was her humble hut ever rediscovered.[6]


                    • #11
                      Umm... How many threads are you going to make that are just you listing myth monsters you think would many good monsters in changeling? It's fine for you to do it... But do you need so many threads for the same thing?

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                      • #12
                        I have to admit my spread of different creatures is rather messy The reason I have the different entities in different threads is I want people thinking about the main themes of the thread and not just the creatures. I am afraid that if I put all the creatures on one thread, people would mostly focus on them for either changelings of True Fae.

                        I put the legends associated with the entities along with their description, because I hope they inspire ideas for Asian, Hawaiian, and Alaskan courts and entitlements. I am hoping will add their knowledge of the different myths and eventually inspire an idea for court chronicle that hasn't really been focused on yet; like maybe in the Philippines or India.

                        As for why I am putting monsters and Goddesses in the Epic/ Legendary thread, I am hoping they inspire ideas for playing a wyrd 10 changeling as pagan god character. Black Annis and the other two goddesses I felt would be too easily reinterpreted as True Fae (which is why I didn't put them in the Fae entity thread). If I put them in the Epic/Legendary thread, I hope there is more likelihood people will be inspired to use their myths for ideas on an epic changeling chronicle or even an epic entitlement.

                        Black Annis is associated with Winter. The two goddesses are associated with Christmas. I am actually hoping to use them for a winter court entitlement that includes all the spirits, monsters, and demons associated with Christmas.


                        • #13
                          It's hard to not to focus on them when they're the only thing in the thread.

                          That said. I'm not sure what a "Global" changeling book would be rather than doing what werewolf has been doing with "have a sample settings chapter" and "have some sample settings in future books".

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                          • #14
                            I am hoping that a global changeling book will draw heavily from legends from all over the world to look at the hedge, courts, entitlements, True Fae, and even Arcadia from the different regions of the world. I am also hoping that such a scorebook will look a little at globalization and current international politics to show how the different changeling societies are affecting each other.


                            • #15
                              I quite like the shotgun of fairy lore that you have presented between these two threads. Sure -- it's quite a lot and doesn't have a unifying theme for all of it beyond the hope that it would be added into some kind of companion guide. Still, I like what you're putting together and proposing. I personally would like to see ya continue to build on it and refine the ideas.

                              I think that perhaps thinking of ways to classify these myths according to Seeming might be useful. One of my absolute favorite series of supplements were the old Vamp: Masq. clanbooks. They always had some great characters/antagonists in them. One I think was actually a Vamp telling of Baba Yaga (Tzimisce I think it was?).

                              Whether or not Robin Hood/The Pied Piper/whatever were real figures aside -- however things get added to the Changeling world should have a dark catch to them in big neon letters. Robin Hood as a larcenist that gives up his spoils only for the protection of a Bargain makes sense. The Pied Piper is clearly a loyalist figure (though one could frame the "Town" as a Fairy Village of some overlord Fae and the Pied Piper's deal being nullified allowed him to save what would be mortal children. Etc...etc...)

                              Basically, I think it would be helpful if you present the myth and then present how you think it would fall into the Changeling world via a kind of [Tag] system that would help to organize it a bit. Right now you have them in the sense of just being non-standard fairy lore for inspiration broadly. If they had an umbrella to put them under though might help to make them a bit easier to engage with from a gameing or even lore standpoint.

                              Thought I'd throw in a couple of my own and maybe try out a few ways of framing to help with what I mean:

                              [Issues of Infidelity]

                              The Martes -- Basically a lady-troll figure from France made to scare drunk men. It's also a figure that explores the concept of male non-consent issues (though one could frame it as just a good excuse made up for infidelity but -- blah, story old as time.) With some Changeling lens thrown over it -- They're Gentry that were banished from Arcadia. There was something less than upstanding or clever about them and they now roam the countryside, chasing down mortal men to take advantage of. They will sometimes drag them back to a cave and abuse them (perhaps making hobgoblins, perhaps just being forever unhappy with the situation) or just abandon them back to the world in a fugue state.
                              [They could work as Lust driven Ogres -- Huntsmen -- or Banished Fae]

                              The Wondrous Wonder Goose -- A Russian tale of a magical goose that can be roasted, eaten, and then come back to life the next day. The catch of the story is that, once it is sold to a different household, the wife tries to cook the goose for her secret lover. The goose refuses, she hits it was a pan, gets stuck to it. The only way to be free is to confess her infidelity to her husband. He then beats her. Because fairytales are, more often than not, real -- real awful.
                              [This could be a Beast Changeling origin -- a Token -- or even a Gentry that takes on the innocuous form as a way of exposing corruption...but only to enjoy the chaos it leaves behind.]