I am basing this off p. 69 in the book so if there is more detailed information elsewhere that is up to date with the 2nd edition, let me know...

So as I understand it the Gold Laws are kind of the "Constitution of the Awakened World" and you can go pretty much anywhere in the world and expect these laws to be respected. "They're rare" is kind of a weird way of putting it, I imagine this means that they are rarely invoked and there just aren't very many of them. They cover
  • Mages have the right to study magic, so long as they do not interfere with other mages'
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